The Greeks were master-bakers and even at the time of the Roman Empire the Greeks were the bakers of Rome. There was a wealth of different kinds of bread, seventy-two types using different flours — barley, wheat, rice, coarse or finely ground — made with milk or oil. The bread was flavoured with: cumin, poppy seeds, fennel, coriander, raisins, fenugreek, nigella, marjoram, rosemary, capers, sage, cabbage leaves, garlic and onion; and made into all kinds of shapes: braids, crescents, animals, mushrooms.
Here's a recipe for Nigella Barley Bread which may or may not be historically accurate. You will need the following ingredients:
- 1 cup barley flour
- 3 cups unbleached bread flour (plus extra for kneading)
- 1 tbsp nigella seed (also called kalonji, black caraway, black cumin, or black onion seed)
- 1 tsp salt
- 2 tsp active dry yeast
- 1 1/2 cup touch-warm water
- 1 tbsp honey
- 1/4 cup olive oil
In a small bowl, mix together water, yeast, and sweetener and let stand until foamy, about five minutes. Meanwhile, in a mixing bowl, combine flours, nigella seed, and salt.
Mix the yeast mixture into the flour and knead until elastic, dusting with flour as necessary, about 8-10 minutes. Knead in olive oil, about a tablespoon at a time. Divide into three equal pieces, place in a bowl covered with a kitchen towl, and let rise in a warm place for one hour.
Preheat the oven to 450F. Roll the three parts into long cylinders and braid them. Put into a greased loaf pan. Bake until the outside is golden brown and the loaf sounds hollow when tapped, about 25-30 mins.
Found at: Veganachronism